RICE IN THE NATIONAL MARKET
The rice crop has wide adaptation to the soil, and has its planting in several regions of Brazil.
What do you need to know
Potassium and nitrogen fertilization along with micronutrients provide the nutrition necessary for rice farming to achieve greater productivity.
The rice crop is one of the main crops grown in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, however, other Brazilian regions have introduced this crop in their rotations, aiming at opening new agricultural areas, due to the resilience in aluminized soils producing in conditions rainfed, without flooding of agricultural areas.
In order to reach the highest productive levels of the crop, potassium and nitrogen fertilization are of paramount importance for rice farming, given the consumption of the crop, which follows an order of priority of extraction in the soil according to the following order: potassium (K ) > nitrogen (N) > calcium (Ca) > phosphorus (P) > sulfur (S) > magnesium (Mg).
Allied to the consumption of macronutrients are those of micronutrients that follow the following order of extraction: manganese (Mn) > iron (Fe) > zinc (Zn) > copper (Cu) > boron (B) > molybdenum (Mo). In order to meet the demand for nutrients balanced by the crop, Cibra has the fertilizer lines CibraMix, Nitrocap and BaseFort, which have the ideal requirement of nutrients to meet the needs of agricultural crops throughout the production cycle.
Rice’s Nitrogen Deficiency (N)
It is part of the chlorophyll molecule and is necessary for carrying out photosynthesis. It acts as a component of protein-forming essential amino acid molecules, it is directly responsible for increasing the protein content in grains.
In the specific case of rice, in addition to promoting increased plant growth. It helps in the expansion of the leaf area, improves the interception of solar radiation, promotes a higher photosynthetic rate, which will favor greater production.
Deficiency – Characterized by yellowing of the older leaves and, depending on the intensity and evolution of the deficiency, it can affect the entire plant. The blades of the lower leaves die, leaving the tissue with a brown color.
Rice’s Phosphorus Deficiency (P)
It plays a central role in energy transfer and protein metabolism. Increases the number of panicles.
Increases grain mass. Helps in the grain maturation process. Increases root system growth. Helps in improving grain quality.
Deficiency – Appears on old leaves. Phosphorus deficiency reduces tillering and prolongs the crop cycle. Older leaves are bronzed, especially on the margins. The symptom progresses from the tip to the base and the new leaves acquire a dark green color. It causes a reduction in growth, tillering, in the root system and, consequently, in productivity.
Rice’s Potassium Deficiency (K)
Important enzymatic activator, regulator of stomata opening and closing. Tissue turgidity regulator. Contributes to protein and carbohydrate synthesis. It helps in the transport of substances elaborated in the leaves to other organs.
Prevents excessive breathing. It increases the plant’s resistance to frost, drought, salinity, lodging and certain pests and diseases.
Deficiency – Causes reduced plant growth. Symptoms first appear as white chlorosis on the tips of older leaves. As the degree of deficiency intensifies, the tissue becomes brown and necrotic at the leaf tip and the symptom progresses along the leaf margin, developing further in the middle of the leaf.
Rice’s Calcium Deficiency (Ca)
It interferes with cell division, maintenance of membrane integrity, and neutralization of toxic acids.
Deficiency – Appears on younger leaves. Terminal leaves die as the deficiency increases, causing severe plant stunting. As the deficiency persists, older leaves develop reddish-brown necrosis on the veins.
Rice’s Magnesium Deficiency (Mg)
Component of the chlorophyll molecule and activator of several enzymatic reactions.
Deficiency – Appears in older leaves, with a yellowish color and, later, the area between the leaf veins becomes orange. When the deficiency spreads over the entire leaf, it is completely dry.
Rice’s Sulfur Deficiency (S)
Constituents of amino acids and proteins involved in photosynthesis.
Deficiency – Begins on the youngest leaves that turn greenish-yellow. As the deficiency intensifies, almost all of them become dry.
Rice’s Iron Deficiency (Fe)
Activator of several enzymes, which enter into reactions in the plant, such as chlorophyll formation, electron transport in photosynthesis and protein synthesis.
Deficiency – It begins with an interveinal chlorosis of the youngest leaves. Over time, the entire plant becomes straw-yellow.
Rice’s Manganese Deficiency (Mn)
Carrier of electrons in photosynthesis, being essential in the formation of chlorophyll.
Deficiency – Interveinal chlorosis appears, with prominent veins. Yellowish interveinal lines, more or less of the same width, are observed. With the evolution of the deficiency, the interveinal tissue becomes necrotic, with a brownish color.
Rice’s Zinc Deficiency (Zn)
Required in the AIA (cell volume promoter) synthesis pathway. It acts as an inhibitor of ribonuclease activity (cell multiplication).
Deficiency – Begins with a whitish green coloration that develops in the tissue at the base of the leaf on either side of the midrib. The leaf blade has a prominent flare in the chlorosis zone. As the leaf becomes older, the chlorotic tissue acquires a rusty color.
The leaf margins, in the ferruginous area, are usually green. Younger, developing leaves have white chlorotic tissue that, as the deficiency progresses, turn rusty brown. The plant’s growth is stunted and the leaves, which are rusty in color, become prominent in later stages.
Rice’s Copper Deficiency (Cu)
Activator of oxide-reduction enzymes.
Deficiency – Younger leaves appear blue-green, becoming chlorotic near the tips. Chlorosis develops downwards along the midrib on both sides, followed by dark brown necrosis of the tips.
The leaves curl, maintaining the appearance of needles along their entire length or, occasionally, in the middle of the leaf, with the final base developing normally.
Rice’s Boron Deficiency (B)
Participates in cell division and elongation. It acts on the fertility and germination of pollen grains.
It participates in the translocation of sugars in the leaves to other organs.
Deficiency – Starts on new leaves or shoots. The tips of emerging leaves turn white and curl, as in the case of calcium deficiency. In severe cases, the growing spots can die.
Blend of Elements
NPK has multi-nutrients and contains a blend of raw materials to ensure the needs of each crop. It is used to fertilize a whole crop in a single application.
Ammonium Sulfate (SAM) is a fertilizer with a high concentration of two macronutrients: nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S), used in its pure form.
Urea is a concentrated granulated fertilizer that provides nitrogen (N) in the amide form for the most diverse crops.
Diammonium phosphate or DAP, as it is better known, is an excellent source of highly soluble phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N).
Pragas do arroz
Pragas subterrâneas ou pragas de solo:
são insetos que se alimentam de sementes,
após a semeadura, e das raízes das plantas
Cornitermes, Heterotermes, Procornitermes spp., Procornitermes triacifer, Syntermes molestus
- Percevejo do colmo
- Percevejos das panículas
Oebalus poecilus, Oebalus ypsilongriseus, Oebalus grisescens
Deois flavopicta, Deois incompleta, Deois schac, Deois flexuosa, Zulia entreriana
- Lagarta militar
- Curuquerê dos capinzais
- Broca do colo
- Broca do colmo
Diatraea saccharalis, Rupela albinella
- Cascudos pretos
Euetheola humilis, Dyscinetus dubius, Stenocrates sp.
- Gorgulhos aquáticos
Oryzophagus oryzae, Lissorhoptrus tibialis, Helodytes faveolatus, Neobagous sp., Hydrotimetes
Doenças do arroz
Pyricularia grisea, Pyricularia oryzae Cav., Mangnaporte grisea
- Mancha parda
Dreschslera oryzae, Bipolaris oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, Cochiliobolus miyabeanbus
Microdochium oryzae, Gerlachia oryzae, Rhynchosporium oryzae, Monographella albescens
- Manchas nos grãos
Phoma sorghina, Dreschslera oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Microdochium oryzae, Sarocladium oryzae, Drechslera, Curvularia spp., Nigrosporoa sp., Fusarium spp, Pseudomonas fuscovagina, Erwinia spp.
- Queima da bainha
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Rhizoctonia oryzae, Thanatephorus cucumeris
- Mancha estreita
- Mancha circular
- Podridão de bainha
- Podridão de colmo
Nakataea sigmoidea, Sclerotium oryzae, Magnaporthe salvinii
- Carvão da folha
- Falso carvão
- Ponta branca
- Nematoide de galhas
- Mal do colo
- Lista parda